By Loren Bliese
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Extra info for A Generative Grammar of Afar
No definite or indefinite articles are found in Afar, although the demonstratives are often translated as the definite the in the Gospel of John ('fi irik 'yab su'geh, 'woo 'yab 'yalla 1 luk su'geh in the beginning was (the) word; that word was with God, John 1:1 [see verse 9 for the same use with this]). -...... 4 below). This form has a final -h, and the resulting closed syllable has a short vowel. 'a-h fa'ea 'wo-h yar'deh yan I want this one. That one is running. 6 below). *'kay 'a koc'so rad'de becomes his this ball fell *'yi 'woo xa 'ea ub' le my that tree I saw adjectives or genitives modify the same noun.
Keen-i-lluk with them ('ken 'luk assimilating to 'kel 'luk in Eritrea and optionally in Wallo) 'mayram-a-11 ih with Mary ('mayram '1 ih assimilating to 'mayral '1 ih in Eritrea and optionally in Wallo) a'gabu-1 luk with women (a'gabu 'luk Northern) 'kaa-lluk with him, 'yo-1 lih with me (everywhere) The postpositional phrase consists of a noun phrase followed by a postposition. The noun phrase is developed most often as a noun or pronoun with an optional demonstrative (see PS 3). with) xa' Joos-at ox-by, by an ox 'a cammur' re-k this cloud-from, from this cloud 'woo 'gita-1 thtzt road-on, on that road 'yo-k 'af-al me-of(gen) mouth-V-at, before me 'keen-i-h them for, for them Several nouns in their usage resemble postpositions, although the derivation is a genitive noun (the main noun in the translation) plus the position or reason noun, which may· in turn take a postposition.
1 Intransitive Complements with Subjunctive The following diagram illustrates the derivation for intransitive verbs which take the subjunctive -u in their embedded sentences. IS1 she . Verb I Aux sJbjun 11s I. daf'fey-t-u- - - dud-'d-a she sit-she-subj abZe-she-impf She is able to sit. The matrix sentence is 'is dud'da she is able, and its complement is the sentence 'is daf'fey't-a she sits. The aspect marker, -a imperfect or -e perfect, is deleted, and the embedded verb is put in the subjunctive mood (see T 30).