A Generative Grammar of Afar by Loren Bliese

By Loren Bliese

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No definite or indefinite articles are found in Afar, although the demonstratives are often translated as the definite the in the Gospel of John ('fi irik 'yab su'geh, 'woo 'yab 'yalla 1 luk su'geh in the beginning was (the) word; that word was with God, John 1:1 [see verse 9 for the same use with this]). -...... 4 below). This form has a final -h, and the resulting closed syllable has a short vowel. 'a-h fa'ea 'wo-h yar'deh yan I want this one. That one is running. 6 below). *'kay 'a koc'so rad'de becomes his this ball fell *'yi 'woo xa 'ea ub' le my that tree I saw adjectives or genitives modify the same noun.

Keen-i-lluk with them ('ken 'luk assimilating to 'kel 'luk in Eritrea and optionally in Wallo) 'mayram-a-11 ih with Mary ('mayram '1 ih assimilating to 'mayral '1 ih in Eritrea and optionally in Wallo) a'gabu-1 luk with women (a'gabu 'luk Northern) 'kaa-lluk with him, 'yo-1 lih with me (everywhere) The postpositional phrase consists of a noun phrase followed by a postposition. The noun phrase is developed most often as a noun or pronoun with an optional demonstrative (see PS 3). with) xa' Joos-at ox-by, by an ox 'a cammur' re-k this cloud-from, from this cloud 'woo 'gita-1 thtzt road-on, on that road 'yo-k 'af-al me-of(gen) mouth-V-at, before me 'keen-i-h them for, for them Several nouns in their usage resemble postpositions, although the derivation is a genitive noun (the main noun in the translation) plus the position or reason noun, which may· in turn take a postposition.

1 Intransitive Complements with Subjunctive The following diagram illustrates the derivation for intransitive verbs which take the subjunctive -u in their embedded sentences. IS1 she . Verb I Aux sJbjun 11s I. daf'fey-t-u- - - dud-'d-a she sit-she-subj abZe-she-impf She is able to sit. The matrix sentence is 'is dud'da she is able, and its complement is the sentence 'is daf'fey't-a she sits. The aspect marker, -a imperfect or -e perfect, is deleted, and the embedded verb is put in the subjunctive mood (see T 30).

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