A la recherche du réel by Bernard D'Espagnat

By Bernard D'Espagnat

Qu'est-ce que l. a. réalité? 
Le physicien Bernard d'Espagnat aborde ici los angeles query du "réel", défendant l'idée qu'il serait intellectuellement discutable de prétendre l. a. traiter sans tenir compte des leçons de los angeles body moderne. Il apporte l'éclairage de los angeles philosophie classique, et celui de los angeles technological know-how contemporaine. Ce livre est donc une brillante initiation aux problématiques de l. a. body, technological know-how qui entre toutes a connu récemment les plus grands bouleversements.

"Alors que j'étais étudiant à l'École centrale, un ami m'offrit À l. a. recherche du réel, qui  venait de paraître. Je le dévorais aussitôt en annotant chacune de ses pages." Etienne Klein.

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The wave function for the lowest state is totally mixed: Although this is a clear case of (optimum) multistate mixing, the result for the lowest eigenvalue is exactly what would result from applying a sequence of two-state mixing calculations: mixing with each of the other W- 1 degenerate states lowers this state by V, giving a total lowering of (TV - 1) V. This feature of one state emerging with special character, low energy, and a highly coherent wave function, is ultimately the microscopic basis for and physical idea behind the development of collectivity.

So also is the effect of pairing among 0+ states that leads to the wellknown energy gap in even-even nuclei. A second case is analogous, except that we lift the initial degeneracy and consider a set of N equally spaced levels. This situation is depicted in Fig. 10 for the case of N = 6. As before, one state is considerably lowered. Of course, the wave functions are now more complex, and are not of particular interest here. What is interesting is that the ratio of the lowering of the lowest level in the nondegenerate (ND) case to the lowering in the degenerate (D) case just considered is nearly independent of N.

To illustrate the results and get a feeling for the hFig. 7. Universal two-state mixing curves. The one on the left gives the smaller of the two mixing amplitudes, ft, while the curves on the right give the energy shift of each level in units of the unperturbed energy separation. Here the lower curve goes with the upper abscissa scale, while the upper curve goes with the lower scale. 2. Examples of two-state mixing energy shifts and mixing amplitudes (from Eqs. 8). 707, and A£s = V. numbers involved, let us consider a couple of examples.

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