A Short Grammar of Kabardian by Ranko Matasović

By Ranko Matasović

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Here come la! " (lan "to paint") ša! " (šan "to lead") txə! " The imperative is also used in the 2nd person plural: fyə Satanyay gwāśa f-ya-wəpś'! 2pl. S. -write) "let's write". This is typologically completely parallel to the English imperative construction (let us write). -go The imperative can be formed from verbal stems containing preffixes for version or conjunctivity: ža! " C) Admirative The admirative mood is formed with the suffix the suffix -yə. It is used to express the speaker's admiration or the unexpectedness of the performing of the action expressed by the verb; few languages known to me have such a verbal mood, but it does exist, e.

See below) can be inserted in the verbal complex between the prefix slots 4 and 5; moreover, the factitive prefix wə- can be inserted immediately before the root. However, we leave these prefixes out of the matrix scheme, because they belong to the domain of word formation more than to morphology. 33 Cp. Gišev 1985: 41-57, where arguments to the contrary are disputed. 30 Matasović: A Short Grammar of Kabardian The suffix positions: 1. intransitivity 2. tense 3. mood potential evidential 4. negation interrogativity We shall first deal with the prefixal verbal morphology, and then with the suffixal morphology.

Af. -af. -af. -to write-cond. -af. -af. The category of version in Kabardian should not be confused with the typologically similar applicative construction, which involves the adding of an argument to the core of the clause and increasing the transitivity of a verb. In Kabardian, adding the version prefix -xw- and the adversative prefix -f'ə- does not affect the transitivity of a verb. g. it cannot be passivized. 51 Applicatives (version prefixes) exist in the other NW Caucasian languages. ) calls the prefixes expressing version in NW Caucasian "relational particles" (cp.

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