By Dr Ayse Zarakol
No longer being of the West; being at the back of the West; now not being glossy adequate; now not being constructed or industrialized, secular, civilized, Christian, obvious, or democratic - those descriptions have all served to stigmatize yes states via heritage. Drawing on constructivism in addition to the insights of social theorists and philosophers, After Defeat demonstrates that stigmatization in diplomacy may end up in a feeling of nationwide disgrace, in addition to auto-Orientalism and inferior prestige. Ay?e Zarakol argues that stigmatized states turn into extra-sensitive to matters approximately prestige, and form their overseas coverage for this reason. The theoretical argument is supported via an in depth old assessment of imperative examples of the established/outsider dichotomy during the evolution of the fashionable states process, and in-depth reports of Turkey after the 1st international warfare, Japan after the second one international warfare, and Russia after the chilly battle.
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Additional info for After Defeat: How the East Learned to Live with the West
The theoretical discussion of available stigma-coping strategies presented in Chapter 2 is later matched by detailed historical reconstructions of after-defeat choices in each case presented in the following Chapters 3 to 5. Chapter 3 focuses on the actions of Turkey between 1918 and 1938; Chapter 4 on Japan between 1945 and 1974; and Chapter 5 75 76 77 78 79 Buzan, “From International System,” 335. A similar functionalism pervades the writings of Bull and Watson as well. Meyer, “World Polity,” pp.
G. Durkheim, Division of Labor, but also Bauman’s entire body of work. g. Goldstone, “Rise of the West”; Hobson, Eastern Origins; Frank, ReORIENT. And in contrast, societies which benefited most from these developments had been facing near destruction not long ago. See Ruggie, “Territoriality and Beyond,” 161. Goldstone, “Cultural Orthodoxy,” 130. , 131. Wallerstein, Modern World-System, pp. 324–5. ” What is forgotten is that prior to at least the eighteenth century, social and economic life in countries such as the Ottoman Empire, Russia, or China was not so different from other agrarian empires now considered part of “Western Civilization,” such as Spain.
The answer lies both in the historical proximity of Russia to the “established” core of the international system (at least compared to Turkey and Japan), and also in the evolution of international normative order. However, both Turkey and Japan have started signaling a realization that their post-defeat strategies are no longer as viable in the international system. I conclude by returning to the two themes I have introduced here: the impact of international stigmatization on international relations, and the place of the established-outsider figuration in the present-day international system.