By S. Chandrasekhar, Space
Rigorous exam of dating among lack of power, mass and radius of stars in a gentle kingdom. Unabridged, corrected republication of unique (1939) version. ''The fabric is all through provided with enviable crispness and readability of expression. The paintings will unquestionably develop into an fundamental instruction manual for destiny researchers within the field.''-Nature.
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Additional info for An Introduction to the Study of Stellar Structure
As to whether spirals were composed of gas or stars, Shapley argued in favor of the former. Spiral nebulae appeared bluer in their outer portions than in their centers, suggesting they did not consist of stars. Those favoring the view of spirals as galaxies argued that we could not resolve the individual stars because the galaxies were so far away. Who, If Anybody Won the Great Debate? Why do spiral nebulae avoid the plane of the Milky Way? Shapley argued that since they avoid the Milky Way plane they must be influenced by it and therefore be close by.
Van Maanen attempted to measure proper motions of spiral galaxies. By proper motions we simply mean the motion of objects in the sky. Proper motions are caused by the motion of the object itself, as opposed to parallax, which, as we have seen, is an effect caused by the Earth’s motion around the Sun. He compared photographs of a given spiral taken some time apart and detected motion of the spiral nebulae. If Shapley’s model of the Milky Way was correct and other spiral nebulae were of the same size as the Milky Way, van Mannen’s measurement implied that they were rotating close to or faster than the speed of light.
If the universe is infinite we would expect to see more and more stars as we stare into space in such a way that the night sky should be as bright as the surface of the Sun. It is the same argument as Newton’s argument for a homogeneous universe. Both gravity and light flux fall off as inverse-square laws. Although more distant stars are fainter, there are more of them to cover a distant patch of sky. These two effects cancel one another in such a way that we keep adding more and more light until the night sky is as bright as the disk of the Sun.